10x feature barcode (CRISPR screening) The use of 10x Genomics feature barcode technology with the purpose of performing a CRISPR screening.
16S rRNA gene sequencing An assay that determines taxonomic and community diversity information by sequencing specific genomic regions used as marker of identity or diversity.
1D Gel One dimensional gels are used to separate an analyte using one physical feature of the analyte.
2D Gel Two dimensional gels are used to separate an analyte using two physical features of the analyte.
Array Arrays (including microarrays) are a set of probes immobilized on a surface. The probes can be oligonucleotides, cDNAs, antibodies and other molecules that recognize a target. Microarrays can be constructed by several methods including (but not limited to in situ oligo synthesis (e.g. Affymetrix), cDNA spotting, bead arrays (e.g. Illumina) and antibody spotting. The position and identity of probes are provided by the manufacturer. The probe identifiers and their target are referred to as annotation or translation of probe identifiers to bioinformatic identifiers. Microarrays can be used for gene expression (mRNA transcript quantification), genotyping, cytokine quantification, etc. Microarrays for gene expression fall into two general classes- single channel and dual channel. The channel refers to the wavelength scanned for fluorescent signals. Affymetrix microarrays are obligatory single channel. There are a host of commercial and non-commercial microarray meanufacturers that use two c
B cell receptor repertoire sequencing assay B cell receptor repertoire sequencing assay
Bio-layer Interferometry Assay A binding assay that detects a shift in the interference pattern reflected from a layer of immobilized material on the biosensor tip to measure binding to- or dissociating from the material on the biosensor.
Bulk RNA-seq assay An RNA-seq assay in which the sample that is sequenced is derived from a collection of cells, such as a tissue sample or entire cell culture, and therefore provides results representative of the aggregate of sample cells.
Cell Culture A cell culture includes the cells in culture, as well as the media and all additives in which the cells are being grown or in which they are stored.
Cell Mediated Immunoassay Cell Mediated Immunoassay
Chemiluminescent Assay A type of immunoassay in which the antigen-antibody complex is quantified using light emission, which is generated from a chemical reaction.
Circular Dichroism Circular Dichroism is a form of spectroscopy used to determine the optical isomerism and secondary structure of molecules.
CITE-Seq CITE-seq is a method in which oligonucleotide-labeled antibodies are used to integrate cellular protein and transcriptome measurements into an efficient, single-cell readout.
CRISPR Screening Genome-wide Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) is a genome editing tool also known as CRISPR-Cas9, -Cas13, CPF1, etc. It is used to study the relationship between genotype and phenotype by editing, ablating, or knocking out gene expression on a genome-wide scale and studying the resulting phenotypic alterations. CRISPR edits genes in living cells to evaluate the subsequent down-stream effects and also has therapeutic potential.
Cryo-Electron Microscopy Electron microscopy involving an aqueous suspension of a sample which is applied in an extremely thin film to a grid, frozen in liquid nitrogen and maintained in this state by means of a special mount. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains
CyTOF Cytometry Time Of Flight CyTOF (DVS Sciences) or Mass cytometry, or , is a variation of flow cytometry in which antibodies are labeled with heavy metal ion tags rather than fluorochromes. Readout is by time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Cytokine Assay An analyte assay to study presence, concentration, or amount of cytokines.
Cytometric Bead Array Assay An analyte assay in which a series of beads coated with antibodies specific for different analytes and marked with discrete fluorescent labels are used to simultaneously capture and quantitate soluble analytes.
DNA methylation profiling assay An assay which aims to provide information about state of methylation of DNA molecules using genomic DNA collected from a material entity using a range of techniques and instrument such as DNA sequencers and often relying on treatment with bisulfites to ensure cytosine conversion.
DNA microarray Microarray that is used as a physical 2D immobilisation matrix.
ELISA Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbant Assay. Quantification of a molecule (e.g cytokine) by an antibody immobilization strategy.
ELISPOT Enzyme-linked ImmunoSPOT. A variant of ELISA with increased resolution that allows quantifying the number of cells in a population that release a molecule (e.g. cytokine).
EMSA Electrophoretic mobility shift assay is an assay which aims to provide information about Protein-DNA or Protein-RNA interaction and which used gel electrophoresis and relies on the fact the molecular interactions will cause the heterodimer to be retarded on the gel when compared to controls corresponding to protein extract alone and protein extract + neutral nucleic acid.
Exome Sequencing Technique for sequencing all the protein-coding genes in a genome (known as the exome). Sequencing process which uses deoxyribonucleic acid as input and results in a the creation of DNA sequence information artifact.
Flow Cytometry Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting
Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer A process to measure the proximity of two fluorochromes whereby the excitation energy of one fluorochrome is released and absorbed by the second fluorochrome. It is used to study interactions and structure of macromolecules.
Fluorescent Antibody Procedure An immunological procedure in which the antibodies are coupled with molecules which fluoresce under ultra violet (UV) light. This makes them particularly suitable for detection of specific antigens in tissues or on cells.
GC_MS Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.(MSH)
Genotyping Assay An assay which generates data about a genotype from a specimen of genomic DNA. A variety of techniques and instruments can be used to produce information about sequence variation at particular genomic positions. alternative term: SNP analysis; genotype profiling
Glycan profiling The analytical process of characterizing and studying glycans, which are complex carbohydrates or sugars attached to proteins and lipids in biological systems. Glycans play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell signaling, immune response, and protein folding
Hemagglutination Inhibition Quantitate serum antibody to a specific antigen by blocking agglutination of cells.
Histological Assay An assay that uses visual examination of cells or tissue (or images of them) to make an assessment regarding a quality of the cells or tissue. This assay can include steps of staining, imaging, and judgement.
Histopathology The microscopic study of characteristic tissue abnormalities by employing various cytochemical and immunocytochemical stains.
HLA Typing Human Leukocyte Antigen typing.
HPLC High Performace Liquid Chromotography is used to separate components of a mixture by using a variety of chemical interactions between the substance being analyzed (analyte) and the chromatography column.
IgH Sequencing IgH Sequencing
Immune Repertoire Deep Sequencing DNA sequencing of the full complement of genes associated with T and B cell antigen-specific receptors in an individual, performed with a high number of replications.
Immunoblot a western blot analysis is an assay which allows detection of protein present in a extract resolved on polyacrylamide gel by electrophoresis, transfered to a membrane made of nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene difluoride and immobilized using formaldehyde based cross linking.
Immunohistochemistry Immunohistochemical staining techniques allow for the visualization of antigens via the sequential application of a specific antibody to the antigen (primary antibody), a secondary antibody to the primary antibody and an enzyme complex with a chromogenic substrate.
Immunoprecipitation An assay with the objective to determine presence of an analyte by mixing a solution of antigen and antibody and separating out bound antigen:antibody complexes using immunoprecipitation.
in situ Hybridization Uses a labelled complementary DNA or RNA strand (i.e., probe) to localize a specific DNA or RNA sequence in a portion or section of tissue (in situ), or the entire tissue (whole mount ISH), in cells and in circulating tumor cells (CTCs).
Intracellular Cytokine Stain Flow Cytometric Assay A technique that is used with flow cytometry to measure cytokine production in isolated cells. Cells are stimulated with an antigen or mitogen, and cytokine secretion is blocked using protein transport inhibitors. The cells are then stained with fluorochrome labeled monoclonal antibodies that target surface markers, fixed and permeabilized, and stained with fluorochrome labeled anti-cytokine monoclonal antibodies prior to analysis by flow cytometry. (NCI)
Iontrap_MS Sequential Mass Spectrometry. A mass spectrometry technique that uses an ion trap and Fourier-transform ion-cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) type instrument to re-fragment the product ions from a mass spec pass. The process can be repeated n times where 'n' represents the number of times the isolation-fragmentation-measurement cycle has been carried out. (NCI)
KIR Typing Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors.
Lateral Flow Assay A procedure using a paper-based platform for the detection and quantification of analytes in complex mixtures, where the sample is placed on a test device for clinical use.
LC_MS Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. An analytical technique wherein liquid chromatography is coupled to mass spectrometry in order to separate, identify, and quantify substances in a sample. (NCI)
Line Probe Assay PCR amplification of a genomic region is performed using biotinylated primers. Following amplification, labelled PCR products are hybridized with specific oligonucleotide probes immobilized on a strip.
Liquid Chromatography Chromatography is the collective term for a family of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures. It involves passing a mixture which contains the analyte through a stationary phase, which separates it from other molecules in the mixture and allows it to be isolated.
Luminex xMAP Microsphere based multiplexing system. Microspheres are color coded and linked to a detector or capture reagent (e.g. antibody, oligonucleotides, peptides, or receptors).
Mass Spectrometry Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions.
Meso Scale Discovery ECL MSD Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection uses labels that emit light when electrochemically stimulated.
Methylation Sequencing An assay in which the methylation state of DNA is determined and is compared between samples using sequencing based technology.
Microneutralization Assay An in vitro assay that is used to determine whether antibodies that can block viral infection are present in a biological specimen. Virus is mixed with serum taken from the subject and is incubated in culture with laboratory cells, which are monitored over time for cytotoxicity.
microRNA profiling assay A transcription profiling assay in which aims to quantify the microRNA species within a biological sample.
Microscopy Visualization of very small entities from cellular to sub-cellular and molecular resolution depending on technique.
Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction Mixed lymphocyte reaction test is a measure of histocompatibility at the HLA locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days; lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (e.g. measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not; in the one\-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
Molecular Cloning Molecular cloning refers to the procedure isolating a DNA sequence of interest and obtaining multiple copies of it in an organism.
MS_MS Tandem Mass Spectrometry. An analytical technique where mass spectrometry is coupled to mass spectrometry in order to separate, identify, and quantify substances in a sample. (NCI)
Multiplex Bead Array Assay A type of solid-phase immunoassay that uses distinctly colored microbeads coated with one or more reagents, which may be antigens, antibodies, oligonucleotides, enzyme substrates, or receptors, for the simultaneous detection and measurement of one or many analytes within a single sample.
Multiplex Immunoassay An assay that allows for the simultaneous measurement of multiple analytes in a single sample.
Nanostring An assay that uses barcoded hybridization probes to quantify the expression of RNA transcripts by Nanostring technology which uses molecular "barcodes" and single molecule imaging to detect and count hundreds of unique transcripts in a single reaction.
Nanostring nCounter miRNA expression assay A microRNA profiling assay using digital molecular barcoding technology to quantify target microRNA molecules without the need for amplification
Neuraminidase Inhibition Assay A type of enzyme-based assay that assesses neuraminidase activity in the presence of an enzyme inhibitor.
Neutralizing Antibody Titer Assay A quantitative assay where different dilutions of serum are mixed with virus and used to infect cells. At the lower dilutions, antibodies will block infection, but at higher dilutions, there will be too few antibodies to have an effect. The simple process of dilution provides a way to compare the virus- neutralizing abilities of different sera. The neutralization titer is expressed as the reciprocal of the highest dilution at which virus infection is blocked.
NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy is a technique for determining the structure of organic compounds.
Northern Blot Northern blots are a derivative of Southern blots where RNA that has been size fractionated (often by 1-D gel electrophoresis) is immobilized on a substrate (e.g. a charged nylon membrane). The blot is(are) hybridized with a labeled probe(s). The position on the blot and the intensity of the label's signal can be used to estimate RNA size and concentration, respectively.
Not Specified Not Specified
Olink assay A proximity extension assay that uses quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technology to determine the concentration/presence of proteins using a high-multiplex, high-throughput protein biomarker platform. The assay utilizes two distinct oligonucleotide-labeled antibodies ( probes ) that bind at different sites for each detected protein. When the two probes are in close proximity, a new PCR target sequence is formed by a proximity-dependent DNA polymerization event. The resulting sequence is subsequently detected and quantified using standard real-time PCR.
Other Other Experiment Measurement Technique not listed.
PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction is a technique to amplify a DNA template.
phage display binding assay A binding assay in which a collection of phages expressing a library of different peptides or protein fragnments is used to infect cells, followed by screening for cells that bind a protein of interest, and identifiying the sequence of infecting phages to determine a suitable binding partner.
Plaque Reduction Neutralization Assay A serological test that measures the ability of antibodies in specific concentrations of serum to prevent the formation of plaques in a cell monolayer when combined with a viral suspension.
Protein microarray Microarray, usually a piece of glass, on which different molecules of protein have been affixed at separate locations in an ordered manner. These are used to identify protein-protein or protein-small molecule interactions.
Pseudovirus Neutralization Assay An immunoassay that is used to determine whether antibodies that can block pseudovirus replication are present in a biological specimen.
Q-PCR Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction is used to measure the gene expression of transcripts by comparing the number of cycles in a sample needed to reach a certain threshold value with the known quantities of a transcript needed to reach the same threshold. It is an alternative term of Quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Real time polymerase chain reaction assay A laboratory technique based on the PCR, which is used to amplify and simultaneously quantify a specific DNA molecule based on the use of complementary probes/primers. It enables both detection and quantification (as absolute number of copies or relative amount when normalized to DNA input or additional normalizing genes) of one or more specific sequences in a DNA sample.
RNA sequencing Sequencing process which uses ribonucleic acid as input and results in a the creation of RNA sequence information artifact.
Rnase Protection Assay A laboratory technique to identify individual RNA molecules in a heterogeneous RNA sample extracted from cells.
SARS-CoV-2 Virus Sequencing SARS-CoV-2 Virus Sequencing
scRNA-seq single-cell RNA sequencing assay. An RNA sequencing assay that uses RNA extracts as input that can be traced to a single cell of origin.
Sequencing Sequencing is used to discover new sequence variants and to genotype a sample for known variants.
Single-Molecule Array (SIMOA) A type of enzyme-linked immunoassay in which single molecules can be detected through the use of femtomolar-sized reaction chambers and an excess of fluorescently labeled antibody-bound beads. (NCI)
SNP microarray DNA microarray used to detect polymorphisms in DNA samples.
SOMAscan assay An analyte assay that uses aptamers to detect protein analytes in serum.
Southern Blot A Southern blot is a method of capturing DNA molecules that have been seperated by agarose gel electrophoresis for subsequent analysis.
Spectral Flow Cytometry Spectral flow cytometry is based on many of the fundamental aspects of conventional flow cytometry but has unique optical collection and analytical capabilities. With spectral flow cytometry, the emission spectrum of every fluorescence molecule is captured by a set of detectors across a defined wavelength range. Every molecule's fluorescent spectrum can be recognized, recorded as a spectral signature, and used as reference in multicolor applications.
Surface Plasmon Resonance An assay that uses the detection of electromagnetic waves in a surface to detect material entities adsorbed to the surface, which changes the local index of refraction.
T cell receptor repertoire sequencing assay T cell receptor repertoire sequencing assay
TCID50 50 percent Tissue Culture Infective Dose, (TCID50) is the measure of infectious virus titer. This endpoint dilution assay quantifies the amount of virus required to kill 50% of infected hosts or to produce a cytopathic effect in 50% of inoculated tissue culture cells.
Transcription profiling assay An assay which aims to provide information about gene expression and transcription activity using ribonucleic acids collected from a material entity using a range of techniques and instrument such as DNA sequencers, DNA microarrays, Northern Blot
Transcription profiling by array An assay in which the transcriptome of a biological sample is analyzed using array technology.
Transcription Profiling by NanoString The NanoString nCounter gene expression system uses multiplexed probe hybridization to capture and count individual mRNA transcripts. Transcripts for each gene are targeted by a pair of gene-specific probes - a biotinylated capture probe to capture the transcript on a streptavidin-coated slide, and a reporter probe containing a color-coded pattern of fluorescent segments. Imaging of the slide can then identify each captured transcript. PMID:18278033]
Virus Neutralization Block a viral function.
Virus Plaque Assay An assay that is used to determine viral quantity by infecting monolayers of host cells with serially diluted virus, covering the monolayers with an immobilizing overlay after a period of incubation to restrict the spread of the virus to neighboring cells, and counting the resulting visible plaques of infected cells.
Western Blot Western blot is a method in molecular biology/biochemistry/immunogenetics to detect protein in a given sample of tissue homogenate or extract. It uses gel electrophoresis to separate denatured proteins by mass. The proteins are then transferred out of the gel and onto a membrane (typically nitrocellulose), where they are probed using antibodies specific to the protein. As a result, researchers can examine the amount of protein in a given sample and compare levels between several groups. Other techniques also using antibodies allow detection of proteins in tissues (immunohistochemistry) and cells (immunocytochemistry). The confirmatory HIV test employs a western blot to detect anti-HIV antibody in a human serum sample. A Western blot is also used as the definitive test for Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, commonly referred to as 'mad cow disease'). Some forms of Lyme disease testing employ Western blotting.
Whole Genome Sequencing Laboratory process that determines the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time. Sequencing process which uses deoxyribonucleic acid as input and results in a the creation of DNA sequence information artifact
Whole Virome Sequencing Assay A whole metagenome sequencing assay that intends to provide information on multiple genome sequences from different viruses present in the same input sample.
X-Ray Crystallography A technique in crystallography in which the pattern produced by the diffraction of x-rays through the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and then analyzed to reveal the nature of that lattice.
Yeast Two Hybrid Two-hybrid screening is a molecular biology technique used to discover protein-protein interactions by testing for physical interactions (such as binding) between two proteins.