16S rRNA gene sequencing An assay that determines taxonomic and community diversity information by sequencing specific genomic regions used as marker of identity or diversity.
1D Gel One dimensional gels are used to separate an analyte using one physical feature of the analyte.
2D Gel Two dimensional gels are used to separate an analyte using two physical features of the analyte.
Array Arrays (including microarrays) are a set of probes immobilized on a surface. The probes can be oligonucleotides, cDNAs, antibodies and other molecules that recognize a target. Microarrays can be constructed by several methods including (but not limited to in situ oligo synthesis (e.g. Affymetrix), cDNA spotting, bead arrays (e.g. Illumina) and antibody spotting. The position and identity of probes are provided by the manufacturer. The probe identifiers and their target are referred to as annotation or translation of probe identifiers to bioinformatic identifiers. Microarrays can be used for gene expression (mRNA transcript quantification), genotyping, cytokine quantification, etc. Microarrays for gene expression fall into two general classes- single channel and dual channel. The channel refers to the wavelength scanned for fluorescent signals. Affymetrix microarrays are obligatory single channel. There are a host of commercial and non-commercial microarray meanufacturers that use two c
B cell receptor repertoire sequencing assay B cell receptor repertoire sequencing assay
Cell Culture A cell culture includes the cells in culture, as well as the media and all additives in which the cells are being grown or in which they are stored.
Circular Dichroism Circular Dichroism is a form of spectroscopy used to determine the optical isomerism and secondary structure of molecules.
CyTOF Cytometry Time Of Flight CyTOF (DVS Sciences) or Mass cytometry, or , is a variation of flow cytometry in which antibodies are labeled with heavy metal ion tags rather than fluorochromes. Readout is by time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Cytometric Bead Array Assay An analyte assay in which a series of beads coated with antibodies specific for different analytes and marked with discrete fluorescent labels are used to simultaneously capture and quantitate soluble analytes.
DNA methylation profiling assay An assay which aims to provide information about state of methylation of DNA molecules using genomic DNA collected from a material entity using a range of techniques and instrument such as DNA sequencers and often relying on treatment with bisulfites to ensure cytosine conversion.
DNA microarray Microarray that is used as a physical 2D immobilisation matrix.
ELISA Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbant Assay. Quantification of a molecule (e.g cytokine) by an antibody immobilization strategy.
ELISPOT Enzyme-linked ImmunoSPOT. A variant of ELISA with increased resolution that allows quantifying the number of cells in a population that release a molecule (e.g. cytokine).
EMSA Electrophoretic mobility shift assay is an assay which aims to provide information about Protein-DNA or Protein-RNA interaction and which used gel electrophoresis and relies on the fact the molecular interactions will cause the heterodimer to be retarded on the gel when compared to controls corresponding to protein extract alone and protein extract + neutral nucleic acid.
Exome Sequencing Technique for sequencing all the protein-coding genes in a genome (known as the exome). Sequencing process which uses deoxyribonucleic acid as input and results in a the creation of DNA sequence information artifact.
Flow Cytometry Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting
Fluorescent Antibody Procedure An immunological procedure in which the antibodies are coupled with molecules which fluoresce under ultra violet (UV) light. This makes them particularly suitable for detection of specific antigens in tissues or on cells.
Hemagglutination Inhibition Quantitate serum antibody to a specific antigen by blocking agglutination of cells.
HLA Typing Human Leukocyte Antigen typing.
HPLC High Performace Liquid Chromotography is used to separate components of a mixture by using a variety of chemical interactions between the substance being analyzed (analyte) and the chromatography column.
Immunoblot a western blot analysis is an assay which allows detection of protein present in a extract resolved on polyacrylamide gel by electrophoresis, transfered to a membrane made of nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene difluoride and immobilized using formaldehyde based cross linking.
Immunoprecipitation An assay with the objective to determine presence of an analyte by mixing a solution of antigen and antibody and separating out bound antigen:antibody complexes using immunoprecipitation.
in situ Hybridization Uses a labelled complementary DNA or RNA strand (i.e., probe) to localize a specific DNA or RNA sequence in a portion or section of tissue (in situ), or the entire tissue (whole mount ISH), in cells and in circulating tumor cells (CTCs).
KIR Typing Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors.
Line Probe Assay PCR amplification of a genomic region is performed using biotinylated primers. Following amplification, labelled PCR products are hybridized with specific oligonucleotide probes immobilized on a strip.
Liquid Chromatography Chromatography is the collective term for a family of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures. It involves passing a mixture which contains the analyte through a stationary phase, which separates it from other molecules in the mixture and allows it to be isolated.
Luminex xMAP Microsphere based multiplexing system. Microspheres are color coded and linked to a detector or capture reagent (e.g. antibody, oligonucleotides, peptides, or receptors).
Mass Spectrometry Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions.
Meso Scale Discovery ECL MSD Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection uses labels that emit light when electrochemically stimulated.
microRNA profiling assay A transcription profiling assay in which aims to quantify the microRNA species within a biological sample.
Microscopy Visualization of very small entities from cellular to sub-cellular and molecular resolution depending on technique.
Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction Mixed lymphocyte reaction test is a measure of histocompatibility at the HLA locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days; lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (e.g. measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not; in the one\-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
Molecular Cloning Molecular cloning refers to the procedure isolating a DNA sequence of interest and obtaining multiple copies of it in an organism.
Nanostring Nanostring technology uses molecular "barcodes" and single molecule imaging to detect and count hundreds of unique transcripts in a single reaction.
Neutralizing Antibody Titer Assay A quantitative assay where different dilutions of serum are mixed with virus and used to infect cells. At the lower dilutions, antibodies will block infection, but at higher dilutions, there will be too few antibodies to have an effect. The simple process of dilution provides a way to compare the virus- neutralizing abilities of different sera. The neutralization titer is expressed as the reciprocal of the highest dilution at which virus infection is blocked.
NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy is a technique for determining the structure of organic compounds.
Northern Blot Northern blots are a derivative of Southern blots where RNA that has been size fractionated (often by 1-D gel electrophoresis) is immobilized on a substrate (e.g. a charged nylon membrane). The blot is(are) hybridized with a labeled probe(s). The position on the blot and the intensity of the label's signal can be used to estimate RNA size and concentration, respectively.
O link A high-multiplex, high-throughput protein biomarker platform that uses Proximity Extension Assay (PEA) technology coupled to qPCR or sequencing read outs
Other Other Experiment Measurement Technique not listed.
PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction is a technique to amplify a DNA template.
phage display binding assay A binding assay in which a collection of phages expressing a library of different peptides or protein fragnments is used to infect cells, followed by screening for cells that bind a protein of interest, and identifiying the sequence of infecting phages to determine a suitable binding partner.
Protein microarray Microarray, usually a piece of glass, on which different molecules of protein have been affixed at separate locations in an ordered manner. These are used to identify protein-protein or protein-small molecule interactions.
Q-PCR Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction is used to measure the gene expression of transcripts by comparing the number of cycles in a sample needed to reach a certain threshold value with the known quantities of a transcript needed to reach the same threshold.
Real time polymerase chain reaction assay A laboratory technique based on the PCR, which is used to amplify and simultaneously quantify a specific DNA molecule based on the use of complementary probes/primers. It enables both detection and quantification (as absolute number of copies or relative amount when normalized to DNA input or additional normalizing genes) of one or more specific sequences in a DNA sample.
RNA sequencing Sequencing process which uses ribonucleic acid as input and results in a the creation of RNA sequence information artifact.
Rnase Protection Assay A laboratory technique to identify individual RNA molecules in a heterogeneous RNA sample extracted from cells.
Sequencing Sequencing is used to discover new sequence variants and to genotype a sample for known variants.
SNP microarray DNA microarray used to detect polymorphisms in DNA samples.
SOMAscan An aptamer-based assay able to detect protein analytes
Southern Blot A Southern blot is a method of capturing DNA molecules that have been seperated by agarose gel electrophoresis for subsequent analysis.
Surface Plasmon Resonance An assay that uses the detection of electromagnetic waves in a surface to detect material entities adsorbed to the surface, which changes the local index of refraction.
T cell receptor repertoire sequencing assay T cell receptor repertoire sequencing assay
TCID50 50 percent Tissue Culture Infective Dose, (TCID50) is the measure of infectious virus titer. This endpoint dilution assay quantifies the amount of virus required to kill 50% of infected hosts or to produce a cytopathic effect in 50% of inoculated tissue culture cells.
Transcription profiling assay An assay which aims to provide information about gene expression and transcription activity using ribonucleic acids collected from a material entity using a range of techniques and instrument such as DNA sequencers, DNA microarrays, Northern Blot
Transcription profiling by array An assay in which the transcriptome of a biological sample is analyzed using array technology.
Virus Neutralization Block a viral function.
Western Blot Western blot is a method in molecular biology/biochemistry/immunogenetics to detect protein in a given sample of tissue homogenate or extract. It uses gel electrophoresis to separate denatured proteins by mass. The proteins are then transferred out of the gel and onto a membrane (typically nitrocellulose), where they are probed using antibodies specific to the protein. As a result, researchers can examine the amount of protein in a given sample and compare levels between several groups. Other techniques also using antibodies allow detection of proteins in tissues (immunohistochemistry) and cells (immunocytochemistry). The confirmatory HIV test employs a western blot to detect anti-HIV antibody in a human serum sample. A Western blot is also used as the definitive test for Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, commonly referred to as 'mad cow disease'). Some forms of Lyme disease testing employ Western blotting.
Whole Genome Sequencing Laboratory process that determines the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time. Sequencing process which uses deoxyribonucleic acid as input and results in a the creation of DNA sequence information artifact
Yeast Two Hybrid Two-hybrid screening is a molecular biology technique used to discover protein-protein interactions by testing for physical interactions (such as binding) between two proteins.