Array Arrays (including microarrays) are a set of probes immobilized on a surface. The probes can be oligonucleotides, cDNAs, antibodies and other molecules that recognize a target. Microarrays can be constructed by several methods including (but not limited to in situ oligo synthesis (e.g. Affymetrix), cDNA spotting, bead arrays (e.g. Illumina) and antibody spotting. The position and identity of probes are provided by the manufacturer. The probe identifiers and their target are referred to as annotation or translation of probe identifiers to bioinformatic identifiers. Microarrays can be used for gene expression (mRNA transcript quantification), genotyping, cytokine quantification, etc. Microarrays for gene expression fall into two general classes- single channel and dual channel. The channel refers to the wavelength scanned for fluorescent signals. Affymetrix microarrays are obligatory single channel. Many commercial and non-commercial microarray manufacturers use two channel.
CyTOF Cytometry Time Of Flight CyTOF (DVS Sciences) or Mass cytometry, or , is a variation of flow cytometry in which antibodies are labeled with heavy metal ion tags rather than fluorochromes. Readout is by time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Cytometric Bead Array An assay in which a series of beads coated with antibodies specific for different analytes and marked with discrete fluorescent labels are used to simultaneously capture and quantitate soluble analytes using flow cytometric analysis.
ELISA Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbant Assay. Quantification of a molecule (e.g cytokine) by an antibody immobilization strategy.
ELISPOT Enzyme-linked ImmunoSPOT. A variant of ELISA with increased resolution that allows quantifying the number of cells in a population that release a molecule (e.g. cytokine).
Flow Cytometry Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting.
Hemagglutination Inhibition Quantitate serum antibody to a specific antigen by blocking agglutination of cells.
HLA Typing Human Leukocyte Antigen typing.
KIR Typing Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors.
Luminex xMAP Microsphere based multiplexing system. Microspheres are color coded and linked to a detector or capture reagent (e.g. antibody, oligonucleotides, peptides, or receptors).
Neutralizing Antibody Titer Measurement of how much antibody an organism has produced that recognizes a particular epitope, expressed as the inverse of the greatest dilution that still gives a positive result.
Other Other reagent.
PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction is a technique to amplify a DNA template.
Sequencing Sequencing is used to discover new sequence variants and to genotype a sample for known variants.
Virus Neutralization Block a viral function.